“Time will be the fire we burn in.” And even though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have tried to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows into a crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is a world apart, a reminder of the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe within the eons ahead.
For people who aim to discover truths concerning the workings in the cell, holding back the floodgates of your energy is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are often thinking about very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions from the life of a cell. Holding these processes under control while their properties could be exploited is akin to the situation of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been utilized as one strategy to the problem of the slow burn. By reduction of the temperatures of samples towards the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity concerns a halt, scientists can seclude moments with time, returning repeatedly to analyze that instant in history.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics is becoming an important industry that creates customized products for almost every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the industry in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in just about every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. With such numerous products to select from expertise in which ones are handiest may elude the standard consumer. As a way to provide an introduction to the most important producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will likely be profiled in this post.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those stuff that a lot of people never consider until they quit working. Built to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels of your laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists avoid thinking about what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day whenever it did. A career’s worth of samples might be lost within a afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on to the floor. Even though this sort of scenario looms ominously in the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not every person is prepared for the day if it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that usually are meant to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company which utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in the refrigerators. Even though gas industry provides this procedure for many years, MMR Technologies was the 1st company to patent the technology and adapt it for really small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is the fact that a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and is allowed to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and also the cool gas passes back the heat exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated within the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid can be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the entire body parts. The device allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and since it provides an internal power source it can be used for that transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the requirement for controlled temperature ramping.
“As a user you would like to know the minimum temperature and exactly how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling helps to ensure that uniform temperatures have already been maintained through the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures down to -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages might be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are provided to be able to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are helpful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to its heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The heat-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to run longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also utilizes a special combination of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and allow on-site recycling. In addition, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning it well to ensure the capillary tubing will be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with 40 years of expertise under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. If the Montreal Protocol started the phase from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to make use of Dupont Suva 95, the newest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler together with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of eco friendly refrigerants, So-Low has also developed an innovative compressor that may be designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens down to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the normal cylindrical containers. Each of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide quick access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, and a storage system adjusts to accommodate an array of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers exceeding half a century of experience in the marketplace. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as little as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be purchased in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions for the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Additionally, it has a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil through the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than two decades, beginning with its production of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and further demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to offer a complete range of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers among the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for use within preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally put on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is currently used on an array of insulated vessels made for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based upon their size, dewars usually rest on the floor or sit down on tabletops where samples can be easily accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that one year without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich filled up with polyurethane. The shape and configuration of dewars vary to this type of extent that many companies build custom dewars to acquire. Many of these companies as well as their products are reviewed from the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for numerous applications. Needless to say, animal breeders are only a small percentage of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing part of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the very first company to develop biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment to get a full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since this time MVE has released the total line of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling approximately 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suitable for cells which can be stored at -125°C but can become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also useful for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, including contaminated-blood bags which can be liable to break open.
Quantum Technology is actually a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the United States and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
Based on Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, one way his company has managed to remain competitive is actually by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they may be custom designed.
One of Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is simply $4 or $5 per liter, in numerous countries away from America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is a problem of concern. That is among the factors why Quantum Technology makes a reliable two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained in the system. The helium with this refrigerator is reliquified for use over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask brand of goods that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless-steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six the latest models of are available with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models can be obtained with a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask brand of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples held in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by a variety of companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems can be bought in five sizes and present features like super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and have capacities up to 6,000 vials. In addition to some of the standard features contained in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, as well as an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates exposure to liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes many different traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made of borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model includes a vented polyethylene stopper to reduce evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars may also be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suited for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times greater than 14 days. Most of these units come designed with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Alternatives for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps to make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars that enable the researcher to keep vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Every one of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the volume of vials that may be safely arranged right into a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials can be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the most commonly used and least considered implements within the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out a day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the first that concerns the issue of whether or not they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials claim that material is trapped inside the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents from the internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although reports have been conducted in an attempt to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and the debate continues on.
Yet another consideration that comes into mind when selecting cryogenic tubes is definitely the material from where they may be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they take longer to warm which could negatively impact the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can also be contaminated with releasing fluids in the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove with the care and attention, and several companies like Axygen are looking at new polished molds which do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, however, warms rapidly but is likewise subject to fracture as a result of microchannels which may form from the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or perhaps violent explosions. Plastic vials can also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion will not be as great.
Gasketing has been a challenge of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the internal pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas inside the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid from the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred as being the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is likewise used, it has a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a difficulty which had been demonstrated if the “O” rings about the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes which you can use at temperatures only -190°C. Intended for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come equipped with attached leak proof caps that include a dual lip plus a silicon washer. A special ridge on each cap makes handling easier, adding to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be found in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes are available in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen even offers a wide array of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Some examples are polypropylene tubes, which can be used with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to ensure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. Among the outstanding options that come with this tube is it is completely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used in a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, even though the System 100 vials are sure to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge around 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it offers developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is made of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. They are ideal to the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like every one of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction causes them to be exceptionally durable, and they may be flame sealed or stored with a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes several polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come provided with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and straightforward-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. Most of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which can be developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene without having mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request from the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions for example iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials is designed to snap closed within a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make your insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system comes with a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees how the microtube is aligned inside the centrifuge rotor to be re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes which are appropriate for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that could come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colours. The user has the choice of choosing from various externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that could be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, along with the polypropylene material that they may be constructed allows them to endure subfreezing temperatures in addition to temperatures and pressures inside an autoclave. One of several areas that Sarstedt has paid particular focus on in developing its collection of products is the demand for cryogenic vials that include reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and are available in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes might be put through a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and every one of its O-ring sealed tubes has become sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical element of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes that make them difficult to keep trace. Labels can become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes could be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Just about the most popular methods for containing samples is the canister and cane. Employing this technique, a series of vials are enclosed in a long aluminum shaft that is submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage that could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of your system reduces exposure a chance to ambient temperatures leading to less evaporation from the freezer, as well as reduces the researcher’s exposure to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are designed to optimize the volume of space for storing afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration can be a cardboard or stainless construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems permit the user to organize as much as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Created for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colours to put just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to get viewed without opening the containers, and they could be adjusted in some models to allow for tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that include storage racks for holding approximately 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise several plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are keyed in order to avoid misalignment and provide temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide stainless steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They have vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for easy retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for the increasing selection of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that happen to be constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They have also introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic packing containers. In fact, many of its goods are sold as standard accessories with a number of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are designed from stainless and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be bought as individual units or as complete racks for usage in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Probably, the cryogenic products one buys today will be the same ones that might be used for years to come. An investment made today may work for decade. In effect, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products for themselves, they can be buying for their successors. The buyer should look into what might 46dexkpky throughout years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. Just a little money which had been saved in the beginning by scrimping on vials or freezers might not exactly appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Regardless of the safeguards integrated to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these kinds of products a top priority. Appointing a permanent position that accounts for the cryogenic safety in the laboratory’s biological collection is one of the ideal way to assure the integrity of the samples.